Archive for 2017

Interview on The Current and CBC article on the Canadian Digital Service

CBC's Julie Ireton has been investigating the Canadian Digital Service, and today published this article, with a few quotations from me on the challenges that CDS is likely to face.

The Current also covered CDS today, again with some thoughts from me.

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Special Issue on Digital Governance in Canada

Happy to finally be publishing this Special Issue of Canadian Public Administration on Understanding Governance in the Digital Era. It was a pleasure working with the authors and my co-editors, Evert Lindquist and Jeffrey Roy. It's currently open access and ready for download.

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Launch of the Canadian Digital Service and a new paper on Digital Government Units

The Canadian Digital Service officially launched last week. First announced in March in the 2017 budget, many have been waiting patiently to learn what this unit will do and what powers and budget it will wield. Many of those details are still not 100% clear, or at least not public. What we do know (as per the budget) is that the the CDS will be housed in Treasury Board Secretariat and modeled on other central Digital Government Units, namely the UK's Government Digital Service, the United States Digital Service and 18f. This tells us something about the orthodoxy that the CDS will adopt - user-centrism, open source technologies, agile methodologies, a delivery-first ethos - but less about the governance structure that the CDS will adopt, given that these other DGUs diverge quite considerably in their on the ground implementation.

For some insight into the opportunities and challenges that lay ahead for the CDS, and for Digital Government Units globally, you can check out this paper I've just released on SSRN: "Digital Government Units: Origins, Orthodoxy and Critical Considerations for Public Management Theory and Practice".

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New chapter with Mary Francoli in Permanent Campaigning in Canada

Mary Francoli and I have published a chapter titled "Permanent Campaigning and Digital Government" in Permanent Campaigning in Canada, a new collection published by UBC Press and edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Anna Lennox Esselment.

Our chapter explores competing narratives of digital government reform. On the one hand, authors have argued that the digital age will bring forth a more open, participatory model of government. On the other hand, narratives of permanent campaigning and New Political Governance assume that in the digital age, social media and the 24/7 news cycle lead to a more opaque model of government, in which public servants withhold information, engage in branding campaigns and betray their commitment to the principle of neutrality at the heart of the Westminster model. Our chapter looks at the effects the digital age has had on the federal government of Canada to test these narratives. We argue that each theory is part right, part wrong, and conclude that theorists of digital government and permanent campaigning must do a better job of contending with each other's propositions in future research.

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Why we need Code for Canada: Op-ed in the Hill Times

I just published this in today's edition of the Hill Times, following on Code for Canada's launch last week.

Why we need Code for Canada

If you’re like most people, you probably don’t spend too much time thinking about government IT—that is, until it fails you.

You’ve felt the sting of these failings while waiting in line, exhausted and impatient, for a government service you can’t believe isn’t yet available on the web. You’ve also felt it when you use a government service that is available online, but that’s infinitely more confusing and time-consuming than the ones on offer from Amazon, Uber or your favourite dating app.

Most recently, we’ve witnessed government’s IT deficiencies in massive cost overruns and delays at Shared Services Canada, and in the Phoenix pay system rollout, a colossal failure that has seen tens of thousands of federal employees over and under paid, and whose clean-up costs were cited at $50 million as of 2016 alone.
The Government of Ontario has taken a lead in this regard, recruiting Code for Canada’s first three fellows, who are set to begin their work in the late summer. We can only hope other governments follow their lead, and soon.

Elected officials have particularly acute reasons to be worried about government’s IT failings. IT is the sleeping giant of contemporary policy implementation, only to be ignored at the policymaker’s peril. Just ask Barack Obama—after years of hard-fought political battles, he was finally able to launch his signature healthcare initiative, only to witness its early failings due to a poorly designed website.

To be fair, in the face of such failures, certain governments are working diligently to build their digital capacity. The City of Toronto recently launched a Civic Innovation Office, and the provinces of Nova Scotia and Ontario have invested in impressive digital teams dedicated to improving government services. The recent federal budget signalled the creation of a Canadian Digital Service, a unit whose specific mandate and resources have yet to be detailed, but which will form part of a more sustained effort to improve the feds’ digital offerings in the coming years.

These initiatives respond to the fact that failures in government IT are in part a simple human resource challenge. As demand for data scientists, designers and web developers has grown, it is the private sector success stories of the digital age—Amazon, Google, Shopify—not government, that are snapping up digital talent.

My own analysis of Canada’s top ten computer science schools’ recruitment strategies finds that outside brief references to opportunities in healthcare, none even mention government careers when advertising the appeal of their degrees. And why would they? If you want to work on cutting edge digital innovations, all evidence suggests that government is the last place you should look for work.

Enter Code for Canada, a national non-profit organization that launched last week with the ambition to jumpstart digital talent recruitment in the Canadian public sector.

Code for Canada picks up on the success of Code for America and its counterparts across the globe. The model is simple: drawing on government and private sector funding, Code for Canada embeds teams of coders, designers and project managers into government on a time-limited basis (called ‘fellowships’), so their digital expertise can be brought to bear on specific government projects. This fills a skills gap in the short term, but has the broader goals of fostering stronger relations between the tech sector and government, and educating bureaucrats on the tools and ways of working that are driving digital innovations outside the walls of their departments.

For their part, Code for Canada fellows are offered the chance to “work on things that matter” at the heart of government. Sound cheesy? Well, this branding has worked immensely well in other jurisdictions, with Code for America alone having pulled in over 120 fellows thus far. These fellows have helped launch initiatives like ClientComm, which cuts rates of recidivism by connecting clients with probation officers via mobile phones, and GetCalFresh, an application that reduced the time it takes to apply for food stamp benefits by 80%.

To be sure, Code for Canada is not a silver bullet for governments’ digital failings. Even if the digital skills gap is narrowed, many public sector organizations will still suffer from excessive hierarchy, dated procurement models, an unwarranted love affair with proprietary IT solutions, weak information management, a crippling status quo default and a tendency to prioritize internal process compliance over the needs of citizens. Code for Canada’s success will hinge on its fellows’ ability to navigate and challenge a public service culture anathema to innovation, digital and otherwise, and to do so while earning buy-in from the ‘bureaucracy proper’, as has been a challenge for other recent digital talent initiatives internationally (see the UK’s Government Digital Service).

Fellows will also need to appreciate the entirely valid constraints that come with working in government, including those that preserve equity, political neutrality and democratic accountability. These principles can be easily ignored in tech startups, but are at the heart of government’s legitimacy.

Of course, government’s legitimacy will also come under fire as citizens continue to suffer sub-par services and costly program failures (or, for victims of Phoenix, as they question whether the government can even figure out how to pay them correctly). Acknowledging this risk, we should welcome Code for Canada as a much-needed response to the IT failings that currently plague not just the quality and cost of our governments, but more consequentially, that undermine citizens’ faith in the state.

Amanda Clarke is an Assistant Professor at Carleton University’s School of Public Policy and Administration and an advisor to Code for Canada. She tweets @ae_clarke. For more information about Code for Canada, visit

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Opening Keynote at Information Without Borders

On February 15th I'll be giving the Opening Keynote at Dalhousie University's Information Without Borders conference. In my talk I'm going to walk through what I view as three evolutionary phases of orthodoxy in digital government theory and practice, from the mid-2000s to present. The title and abstract are below:

"The Evolution of Digital Government Orthodoxy: 2006-2017"

As of the mid-2000s a series of public management paradigms emerged to describe the impact of the digital age on government. Variously labelled Digital Era Governance, Government as a Platform, Wiki Government, Gov 2.0, and, in practice, often ushered in as part of Open Government reforms, these theories anticipated that government would become more participatory and collaborative in the digital age, increasingly turning to outside expertise and capacity to design policies and deliver services. In this presentation, Professor Clarke explores the wave of research and practitioner experience which suggests that these paradigms as originally conceived at once greatly over-estimated the capacity of government to undertake a more open and collaborative style of governance, while also ignoring insights from traditional public administration research which question the logic of unbridled openness and participatory policy and service delivery models. Responding to the deficiencies of these early theories, Clarke argues that in recent years governments and scholars have entered a new phase of orthodoxy in digital era public administration, one which calls the public service to invest in the coordination and accountability mechanisms that any collaborative policy and service effort demands. In more recent cases, governments are flipping the script entirely, turning not outwards to build their digital policy and service capacity, but instead, looking inwards, building their own digital skills and capabilities within elite digital units at the centre of government. Clarke concludes by reflecting on these various phases of thinking on digital era public administration, parsing their implications for public management theory, state-citizen relations, and, at a practical level, the lessons they offer those within and outside the state working to bolster collective problem solving capacity in the digital age. 

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